Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has emerged as highly effective treatment of C. difficile. FMT as emerged as a highly effective treatment for recurrent C. difficile infection. The transplantation refers to the infusion of a suspension of fecal matter from a healthy individual into the GI tract of another person to cure a specific disease through a colonoscopy. It is based on the concept that stool is a biologically active, complex mixture of living organisms with great therapeutic potential for C. difficile infection.
Most patients with C. difficile infection respond to metronidazole, vancomycin but 15-35% may have recurrence. Patients who have one recurrence have 45% chances of a second recurrence, and after a second recurrence, 65% will have a third recurrence. The current treatment of recurrence is additional course of metronidazole, oral vancomycin, or prolonged oral vancomycin. FMT is commonly performed by colonoscopy but doctors have used nasogastric tube or nasoenteric tube, gastroduodenoscopy and enema.